BRIGHT SKIES Part 4 By Harry Mason Copyright (c) August 1997 "All Rights Reserved"
Readers of previous episodes of this series of "Bright Skies" articles might be forgiven for believing that exotic fireball, light emission, electrical, electro-magnetic, and coupled explosive and/or seismic events have over recent years been observed solely within the continent of Australia. Although sightings "down under" have been prolific, and strongly suggest that we are being utilised as a major testing ground for someone, there have also been a significant number of similar events in other countries during the same time frame (say 1985 - 1997), as the following randomly chosen examples, provided to the author by Nexus readers, and reproduced below in their original (but abridged) format, amply demonstrate. : MANSFIELD INCIDENT - UNITED KINGDOM (12-11-1987) Ashley Rye wrote to SKYWATCH (Internet UFO News Server) the following e-mail report concerning an event that occurred in the early hours of November 12, 1987, at Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, England, UK.
"On the night of November 12, 1987 a freak storm, or freak 'thunderbolt' damaged a number of properties in the Kirkby area, including one house that was almost destroyed. Mike West, who dealt with many of the insurance claims, will verify that this was no ordinary meteorological phenomenon. He told local residents, ''This just doesn't make any sense. Every claim that I've dealt with in the last 26 years has been logical and reasonable... but this defies reason. It did not even travel in a straight line (as you would expect with a thunderbolt, following the line of least resistance) It zigzagged across the sky, and people even saw it dive down over the hills... It's as if the whole area was blanketed with electromagnetic radiation." Effects were felt over a wide area. Mansfield residents were rudely awoken at 1:30 am by a sound 'like an explosion'. Appropriately, perhaps, a few were immersed in an old war movie, The Battle of Britain, on TV, which by bizarre coincidence had just reached the point where German bombers were dropping their payload on a British aerodrome. During the explosion, lights reportedly switched on by themselves, while others which were already on exploded. Some TV aerials split in two. Forty insurance claims were made in one street for Video and TV equipment damaged by the 'thunderbolt'.
A local Video and TV repairman working late at home that evening reported that the lights suddenly dimmed and light bulbs started to pop in the house; furthermore, the electrical 'trip switch' blew and next day he was inundated with phone calls from individuals who's equipment had been damaged. Some suggested ball lightening was the cause of all this, but one old lady saw it flying straight towards her house, looping, double-looping, and performing other manoeuvres. Another man watching from a distance described how the sky suddenly became bright red.
The explosion was heard and felt over an area of 7-8 square miles, throwing some people out of bed, somewhat more energy than is required for a standard manifestation of ball lightning, one is tempted to conclude. Mike West has dealt with numerous claims related to ball lightning and thunderbolt damage, but has never encountered anything to compare with this event. Newspaper headlines described how lightning had struck one house, demolishing its gable end. Residents witnessed an object zigzagging very slowly over Mansfield, making a whining noise as if it were in trouble.
Two more objects were subsequently observed coming down near Blidworth, close to Sherwood Forest. According to the insurance claims objects came from three different directions and collided in mid-air just south of Mansfield. The UFO's were reportedly heading towards Kirkby when one of them seemed to encounter difficulty, apparently losing power and coming down in a large wood near Blidworth. It appeared to 'bounce' on impact, releasing a tremendous shockwave. One report suggested that one object was a craft in trouble and the other two could have been missiles.
Numerous persons reported structural damage to their property. Powerlines collapsed. Curiously, meteorological reports confirmed that there was neither cloud, wind, rain nor lightning active that night, resulting in a number of property damage claims not being met, in spite of investigation. Other witnesses spoke of a still and cloudless night. Eyewitnesses describe a number of balls of white light streaking to the UFO as it descended, near Annesley Hall which stands on private grounds, hampering attempts to obtain further information.
At 2:15 am seven military helicopters, including what appeared to be troop-carrying Chinook surrounded by Gazelles and Lynnx's flew in at low speed scanning the area with search lights, over Normanton, Sutton-In-Ashfield, and Kirkby. The police subsequently cordoned off the impact site and erected road blocks that remained for several days.
Trees at the site are still badly incinerated and many marked for removal. The army remained at the impact site for 3-4 days. The first impact of the object, before it bounced, caused a raging conflagration which burned some trees down, and caused others to burn on the opposite side of their trunks from the fire. Damage left in the wood was calculated to have been made by an object approximately 60 ft across, confirmed visually by one witness. The trees were oddly bent from the base to a height of six feet and further. In microwave-like fashion pine cones were burnt from the inside out.
The day after the incident heavy military lorries arrived at the site. Armed guards were posted to prevent access, Government officials and spotter planes were seen. At the first impact site top soil was then found to have been removed down to a level of about 9 inches. This was replaced with clay and covered with new top soil; new pines and silver birch were planted".
This excellent report is extremely interesting from a number of angles, especially as it involves intense electrical activity and nigh-time light emission phenomenon. The sightings of actual "objects" need to be treated with caution as (in common with most night time observations) it is highly likely that only light emission was actually observed and thus the object or mass was assumed to be present behind the visible light - and this may, or may not, be the true situation.
This Mansfield event may represent either a secret military test of an advanced propulsion system gone horribly wrong, or a similar night time flight of three such operational craft, or a true alien UFO accident scenario, or perhaps it consisted of three separate Tesla ray/wave plasma EM slugs ("three objects coming from different directions and colliding") being transmitted to one target point where mutual interference released an EM pulse (similar in character to a nuclear EMP blast) ?
The "number of balls of white light streaking to the object as it descended" could be observers describing a dielectric Earth EMP effect blasting up (toward ?) the incoming EM pulse - similar to those seen in several early film recordings of nuclear blasts where a multitude of white lights streak upwards curving around the central fireball plasma - looking like rockets - but actually consisting of induced EM energy slugs derived from the Earth's own dielectric field by the sudden massive EM field in the nuclear blast's plasma fireball. It is this mechanism that actually creates a nuclear blast's EM pulse (EMP) and causes widespread regional damage to unshielded electrical systems.
If the later postulated EMP cause is correct for the Mansfield incident it is a perfect example of a defocused EM weapons strike. Perhaps a UK test ?, or more likely a Russian test ? - designed to ascertain if UK authorities would recognise the technology and react - it being quite probable that the UK defence units would not know what had actually taken place. The subsequent high level UK military activity at the Mansfield site demonstrates a very strong interest in this type of event - so someone at least was on the ball - in sharp contrast to our Australian authorities who appear to be adopting an Ostrich type approach.
Such zigzag or angular sine wave type fireball/lights have been quite commonly observed in the skies over the Kimberley region of Northern Australia in recent years. These events appear to be mega scale examples of oscilloscope type action with the moving EM energy light slug being controlled by electrostatic wave grids in the atmosphere/ionosphere.
EUREKA EVENT, CALIFORNIA, USA ( 24-09-1994)
The following excellent report (and quite typical of the genre) was written by Christine Gates of Blue Lake, California and recently e-mailed to the author :- "Whilst driving (alone) from San Jose, California, north to my home in Eureka, California, on September 24, 1994 at 9:32 pm, I saw a blue fireball with a gold tail race by me. These are my best guesses about distance and speed: It was not too far from me, maybe a half mile or so. It was travelling between me and the mountains near Highway 101. It was approximately 100 - 200 feet off the ground. Travelling from south to north at about 200 mph. I slowed the car down a little to watch this beautiful 'thing' It then continued north over another mountain and then a HUGE flash of blue-white light lit up the night sky as though it were daytime!
The flash came from where the fireball went over the horizon and radiated from that point out to the entire sky. I was about 25 minutes south of my home in Eureka. OH, MY GOD! I thought it was a missile that had targeted the Eureka area. My husband and my 2 year old daughter were home waiting for me! Would they be there when I arrived? Should I turn around? Are we at war? I nearly stopped on the Highway because I was struck with terror! There was a California Highway Patrol Officer and another car on the road with me. None of us actually stopped but we all slowed down and then sped towards the city. When I got home and Eureka was still there, just as I had left it the day before. I was really confused. I ran into the house and asked my husband if he saw the flash of light? He looked at me funny and said, "Yes, I saw it while I was sitting in the living room watching TV. What was it?"
The next day, I asked everyone I knew and every stranger that I passed if they had seen the flash of light and/or the fireball? If I remember correctly, about 80% of everyone asked saw the flash. Most of them were inside their houses at the time. People inland reported that they also heard a very loud rumbling noise just before the flash. No one on the coast said they heard the rumbling. I don't think that anyone that I asked saw the fireball. I even called people up and down the west coast to see how far north and south it was seen. I, personally, spoke to people as far south at San Jose, as far east as Redding, CA, and as far north as Portland, Oregon, who saw the flash.
The day after, 9-25-94, there were two local TV stories, two local newspaper stories, and the large San Francisco Chronicle newspaper story about this bizarre occurrence. They were all asking, "What was it??" The media made promises to let the people know. The next day, 9-26-94, there was no more coverage. And not another word after that! The local TV station called me on 9-25-94 to tell me that they were working on it, but the only official statement they could get was that it was, "Magnetic Interference in the Ionosphere." End of story.
f1The TV station said they checked with the airports, the police, the National Weather station here in Eureka -- nobody saw anything and there was nothing on any radar that night. The TV reporter that I had been talking with was very suspicious. We both wondered what it could have been ? Even if it was as simple as a meteorite glancing past our planet, why was there so much silence about it by 6pm, 9-25-94? There was never another report about it by the media after that".
This report from California is absolutely identical to hundreds of Australian reports as regards the fireball appearance and flight style, it's performance, the power of the "explosion", and the initial media reaction, followed by total media silence. The lack of follow up stories may be purely due to ignorance, followed by disinterest, or is due to an official clamp down ? It is interesting to note that several identical type fireball reports were made in Northern Australia during October 1994 - just a few days after this event in California, suggesting these fireball events are planet wide in their scale of operation.
ARTISTS RENDITION OF A FIREBALL AND IT'S "EXPLOSION
The illustration attached below is a black/white rendition of an original colour pastel sketch of a fireball seen in Northern Australia in mid October 1994. The artist is a friend of mine and was in Kununurra (in the Eastern Kimberley) on the night in question. He saw this fireball barreling along from west to east - the same night as three such fireballs passed one after the other over Tom Price - apparently originating at the giant Exmouth "VLF" Transmitter (Tx) complex in Northwestern W.A. There was about one hour between the sightings at Tom Price and his observation at Kununurra.
The distance from Kununurra is some 1400km, or say 875 miles, to the ENE of Tom Price i.e. an average speed of 875 mph approx. would allow "IT" to get from Tom Price to Kununurra. This fits with the Tom Price sightings since they apparently suddenly accelerated after passing over Tom Price at slow speed (150mph ?) and disappeared over their eastern horizon in a brilliant and huge flash of blue-white light that lit everything up like day - i.e. identical to the artist's observation of the Kununurra event !!!
The bottom part of this picture shows the Kununurra fireball plus a smallish tail - following around the Earth's surface (like a low flight level F-111 bomber running under radar), the top part shows the strange "radial light explosion" and huge light flash observed as it went over the horizon !!! This one, like those at Tom Price, had NO noise associated. The Tom Price ones were travelling at some 150mph, the Kununurra one was going very fast "like a bat out of hell".
POSTULATED ASPECTS OF FIREBALL EM WEAPON PHYSICS
Most (65%) reported Australian fireballs have loud pulsed roaring diesel freight train noises accompanying their flight. NONE appear to give off sonic booms !!! Hence I suspect none have mass attached (this being necessary to create a sonic boom or shock wave moving at speeds greater than that of sound) and I postulate that they probably consist of concentrated slugs of infolded TESLA ray-wave E/M energy - emitting light (photons) as a by-product of interaction with air molecules to provide a hologram like spatial form ???
The transverse vibrational waves reported as shaking houses under the fireball flight path may be caused by the rapidly vibrating Tesla longitudinal scalar wave EM energy slug initiating harmonic wave coupling within the inter-atomic bonding of either (1) the nearby air molecules, (2) the house construction material's crystal lattice, and/or (3) the ground rock crystal lattice.
Severe high energy harmonic coupling would occur at the instance of the weapon's microsecond wave release of a concentrated EM energy pulse, and this would probably cause an explosive splitting apart of the inter-atomic level bonding of the targeted material eg. below ground rock, above ground building structures, or in the gases of the "air". This will create a huge explosion and a "regular" earthquake - probably quite indistinguishable from "normal" quakes, or in the air an "air-quake" will result.
Such an explosion would probably be quite similar to a low level nuclear fission blast and would involve essentially similar but EM initiated inter atomic processes that affect the atomic nucleus and it's bonding with it's neighbouring atomic nuclei. It would probably create some minor residual radioactivity due to the production of a number of exotic isotopes as a by product of the process. This mechanism is probably the reason for Russian (as reported by "right wing" KGB ? Presidential candidate Zherinovsky whilst threatening Bosnian Muslims with annihilation) use of the code word "Ellipton Bomb" whilst referring to these EM weapon types. Rapid on-off alternating electrostatic EM field coupling would cause a Mohr stress ELLIPSOID oscillation in any material by effects on inter-atomic bonding - if powerful enough this energy input would ultimately lead to very fast explosive material rupture of the inter-atomic bonds - i.e. a major explosion of nuclear force levels and/or the creation of an apparently "normal" looking earthquake.
RECENT MAY - JUNE 1997 AUSTRALIAN EVENTS
Whilst this series of Bright Skies articles (Parts 1 to 3) has been in progress during 1997 we have continued to experience many significant fireball events here in Australia; the following major events being particularly worthy of mention.
(1) Late Evening 1-05-97 CENTRAL NSW. FIREBALL :
Massive blue-white ripple lights flashed through the night skies of central and eastern NSW late on the evening of 1-05-97. These were reported by phone calls to the author, and to Ross Dowe at the Melbourne National UFO "Hotline". The following day TV Channel 10 ran a story picked up from the Sydney Reuters wire concerning many reports to the Police and to Astronomical Observatories of a huge fireball that flew at low level across central NSW with a loud roaring noise. This "object" appeared to arc down to the ground on the horizon where it exploded with a loud explosion and an associated "fireworks" light display. A related ground tremor was reported from Cobar and Broken Hill. Observers considered that there must have been an Earth bolide impact somewhere in western-central NSW, northeast of Broken Hill.
The events are believed by the media and astronomical observatories to represent yet another meteorite fireball impact in Australia !!! However since this initial media discussion NO reports of any impact crater discovery have been forthcoming, in fact all news on this fireball went silent within one day of the event.
(2) 6.15pm (EST) 24-06-97 CENTRAL VICTORIA FIREBALL :
This dramatic fireball was reported by hundreds of observers in Victoria and Tasmania as it flew over the Tasman Sea, then via the Mornington Peninsular to north of Melbourne, over the town of Ballarat and towards the town of Ararat in the state of Victoria.
There were some 240 phone calls from eyewitnesses to Ross Dowe in Melbourne at the National UFO Hotline re this Victorian 24-06-97 fireball. The observers reported that in it's parallel to the Earth low altitude overland flight path it caused overvoltage explosive blow outs of house light (240 volt AC) globes, dimmed out car headlights by reducing vehicle DC voltage, and also discharged car batteries - as it passed by at relatively low level and very high speed (afterwards the car headlights/batteries returned to normal strength !!!). f1[These effects upon 12 volt DC battery systems are very significant indicators of Tesla style scalar electrostatic waves warping local space time.]
It also created shock or blast waves during it's flight - felt by observers as air pressure waves. Penetrative vibrational waves shook houses quite violently as it went past - these propagated at right angles to it's direction of travel, and appeared severe due to the low altitude of the fireball ? The fireball was reported variously as a huge bright orange-red-white-green-blue illumination (exact colour appears in this case to depend upon the distance of the observer from the fireball). The fireball was commonly reported as the size of the full moon. It apparently was preceded by 3 bright blue illuminations. It made a very loud pulsed roaring noise in flight. I am uncertain at this time if these blue lights were huge blue light flashes in upper atmosphere - as I suspect - and as previously reported by observers in many other Australian fireball and in many isolated (non-fireball) upper atmosphere or ionosphere "bright flash" cases - or if they were blue lights moving in front of the main fireball ?
Night was turned briefly into day by the very bright light radiating from the Fireball. It had a longish vapor or cloud type trail. No sound barrier blasts were reported - but it was very-very fast - thus suggesting that NO mass was present, or else sonic booms would undoubtedly have been produced at it's low flight altitude. The Victorian fireball was on a course that points directly at the Exmouth Peninsular Tx site in north-western Australia - possibly originating on a great circle track from New Zealand, or from further afield e.g. the Tucano Tx site in Argentina ?
This recent Victorian fireball would appear to be another prime candidate for a Tesla longitudinal E/M ray-wave plasma ball energy slug weapons test, but perhaps it was just another exotic meteorite !!! Trouble is lately we seem to be getting far too many of these monsters crossing our skies, and for some reason they just love flying on the 1st. of May (see Bright Skies Part 1 re 1-05-95 Perth event). Now who is it that celebrates that date every year !!!
FIREBALL "EXPLOSIONS" AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
Apparently this recent Victorian fireball exploded spectacularly in western Victoria - like a huge "fireworks" display. I say "apparently" since it is very common for observers to see a vivid fireworks light energy "explosion" after the fireball gets down to their horizon. I suspect that this is only an ionospheric EM coupling effect due to the evidence from multiple witnesses along several different fireball flight paths. Commonly each observer (spread along say 2000km of flight path) sees a fireball fly overhead, go down towards his horizon, disappear in a huge massive fireworks display explosion, then the next observer (positioned say 200km further along the flight path) sees exactly the same effect, and so on along the line of observers.
It could be that the fireball (EM energy slug) is reacting a la Tesla thesis with the atmosphere and/or ionosphere to give a brilliant but pulsed (every 200km or so) display of light energy ? Or perhaps the EM fireball hologram is pulsing on - off at low frequency and at the "off" there is a field collapse giving rise to the apparent explosion, or - more likely - at the "on" scalar EM field pulse there is a Tesla field transmission coupling from the Tx (transmitter site) to the atmosphere/ionosphere via local dielectric field ground to give the apparent explosive fireworks display.
The timing of the last two major Fireball/explosion events was about 10.00pm for 1-05-97 in central NSW, and just after 6.00pm for 24-06-97 near Melbourne Victoria. This does not suggest any attempts to hide these possible "weapons tests" is going on - rather the opposite appears to be the case i.e. you were meant to see these things ??? I find this interesting - perhaps they are threat messages to our military - from say Russian-Japanese, or from little grey Aliens, or a new class of natural electrical event , or exotic meteors ??? Of course there is every possibility that we are dealing with a series of highly electrically charged meteorites that have very odd flight characteristics - preferring to fly over Australia in ever increasing numbers in recent years. With all of these fireballs running wild over our skies - some getting pretty close to Canberra - you would think someone in authority would get agitated enough to do something !!! At least some official comments would be in order, but all we get is silence.
Yes there have been historical meteor fireball events recorded on planet Earth over many centuries - but not with the present high periodicity, unique appearance, and flight style, nor with the commonly associated explosive and seismic effects. These recent fireball and other electrical events are HIGHLY anomalous and appear to represent a considerable danger to the population of not only Australia, but much of the entire planet. Certainly just one of the associated explosion/earthquakes could completely flatten a town the size of Broken Hill, Kalgoorlie, Mt.Isa, Alice Springs, or Canberra - with enormous loss of life. It would approximate a nuclear blast in intensity and spoil the inhabitants whole day. Determination of whether I am correct, or not, about the source or origin of these Fireballs (i.e. EM weapon "tests", alien UFO, or natural electrostatic meteor, or other evolving natural electrical phenomenon etc.) is quite irrelevant to this problem and should NOT cloud the discussion.
Our Governments MUST initiate open, public, wide ranging, and honest scientific studies on the nature of these events, or they would appear at best to be unfit to represent us, and at worst to be in treason to the general population. I cannot believe that any Government would be so irresponsible as to allow the testing of potentially highly dangerous scalar EM energy slug weapons around and over us, when they involve such enormous energies, so many unknowns regarding reliability of control, and possible side effects due to Tx waves on the general population's health. However similar irresponsible behaviour was often exhibited by the Australian, British, and USA Governments during the 1950's nuclear testing era. By all accounts the Soviet Government was even more careless of their citizens health during this time. Therefore I suppose it is quite possible that new weapon toys would be similarly unleashed into the public domain. There is of course another possible scenario that could be contributing to the Government silence - see below .
EXMOUTH Tx FIREBALL WEAPONS AND ORBITAL UFO's
R.Hoagland, ex NASA employee, and space archaeologist media personality released some spectacular video footage taken on a USA space shuttle mission in September 1991. This film was downlinked by radio from the shuttle to a NASA ground station in the USA, and was also intercepted en-route by a USA ham radio operator. Subsequent to this intercept and it's public distribution by the radio ham NASA initially encrypted and then totally ceased further shuttle video transmissions.
The shuttle was said by Hoagland to be in orbit over Indonesia heading south towards Western Australia. Subsequent research by Australian and New Zealand UFO groups demonstrated that the shuttle was in fact over Lake Carnegie in central Western Australia heading south-south-east. The video film shows a small white light UFO that appears over the Earth's horizon to the east of Australia and flies north at a speed of some 54,000mph (this and subsequent data are according to Hoagland's calculations). Suddenly the upper atmosphere or ionosphere below the shuttle flashes with an intense white light. The UFO appears to sense this flash and immediately executes a 180 degree 14,000g force turn accelerating out of orbit and away from the planet at some 200,000mph.
All of the above manoeuvres occur in a second or so, and are immediately followed in a micro-second by two very high speed bright "light energy pulses", riding straight (but fainter) light beams from the planets surface below the shuttle, projected up to a spot where the UFO would have been - had it not reacted so violently to the initial upper atmospheric light flash. The Australian and New Zealand UFO research team claim that beam pulse # one came from Exmouth in north-western W.A., and beam pulse # two came from near Alice Springs in the N.T.
Hoagland believes this film demonstrates a US test of the "Brilliant Pebbles" particle beam weapon system aimed at a super secret US anti-gravity drive space craft/drone. The same film shows a few other orbital lights that are presumably other UFO's.
Recently I was contacted by an Onslow resident who had read NEXUS and Bright Skies Parts 1 and 2. He reported that his son had been totally spooked in late 1991 whilst Roo shooting one night south of Onslow on the Crow Plains (some 80km south east of the Exmouth Tx site). The son and another shooter had observed huge blue-green-white fireballs form at ground level and fire off into space along a light beam at a steep angle and at an ever accelerating velocity.
The fireballs were seen at ground level to their north-west (a reconstruction places them exactly in line with the Exmouth Tx site). The fireballs almost certainly originated from the "VLF" Tx site at the "Harold E. Holt" Exmouth EM base. Fireballs were seen on several nights and had been previously reported by the owner of the sheep station in this area. The ground eye-witness reports couple well with the Hoagland space shuttle video film and the antipodean UFO research team findings. The data collectively demonstrates that the Exmouth base is indeed a site of major EM weapon system deployment that can at the very least create and fire EM plasma energy pulses into space.
The data also explains the strange upper atmospheric light flashes seen around WA and in other parts of Australia as isolated incidents - no co-incident fireballs being seen with the majority of these high altitude flashes. It was this type of event occurring below the space shuttle that appeared to cause the UFO to turn and run. I postulate that it represents a Tesla Energy Magnifying Transmitter "warming up" and energising the ionosphere to Earth ground space cavity - as a prelude to EM weapon pulse firing. The EM fireball plasma energy pulse is presumably shot skywards along an improved "Grindel H. Mathews" ultra-violet laser beam that "clears" the way and creates a conducting path through the atmosphere for propagation of the Tesla EM energy slug.
Unfortunately for the Exmouth weapons team the video film UFO was a slight technological jump ahead of their pulse weapon. I remain unconvinced by Hoagland's explanations of the action in this film being a weapon test against a USA "UFO" space craft/drone. The UFO demonstrates some very advanced abilities and although I can accept the USA is technologically advanced I really have to wonder if this UFO is truly of USA origin; or is it more likely to be of off-planet alien design and manufacture ??? The origin of this particular UFO is of great importance since this Hoagland film could demonstrate that a state of war exists between the USA (and by default Australia) and an off-planet alien power ???
Such an alien state of affairs could well explain (but not condone) the Government and media silence that exists on recent fireball and exotic light emission events. However other data and intelligence points more towards an exchange of fire with advanced technology craft operated by other Earth bound powers in a secret oligarchic war that has been evolving around us for several years.
One thing is totally certain - the Hoagland video film does not show a series of ice particles flying past the shuttle as NASA would have us believe. My research conclusions may well turn out to be incorrect and thus be good fairy stories !!! - but they pall into insignificance alongside NASA's eloquent explanations.
HARRY MASON B.Sc., M.Sc., M.A.I.M.M., M.I.M.M., F.G.S. (Geologist-Geophysicist)